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The shortcomings of Aristotelian physics would not be fully corrected until the 17th century work of Galileo Galilei, who was influenced by the late Medieval idea that objects in forced motion carried an innate force of impetus.
Galileo constructed an experiment in which stones and cannonballs were both rolled down an incline to disprove the Aristotelian theory of motion early in the 17th century.
The original form of Newton’s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which itsmomentum changes with time.
If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object Related concepts to force include: thrust, which increases the velocity of an object; drag, which decreases the velocity of an object; and torque, which produces changes in rotational speed of an object.
Only four main interactions are known: in order of decreasing strength, they are: strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational.
In 1687, Newton went on to publish his thesis Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
This law is an extension of Galileo’s insight that constant velocity was associated with a lack of net force (see a more detailed description of this below).
In other words, to phrase matters more technically, the laws of physics are the same in every inertial frame of reference, that is, in all frames related by a Galilean transformation.
For instance, while traveling in a moving vehicle at a constant velocity, the laws of physics do not change from being at rest.